Pierre-Louis Maupertuis (1698-1759) published a book in 1751 in which he concluded that new species resulted from the recombining of different parts of living animals.The ideas that promoted evolutionary theories would continue to ferment in France coming from men like Denis Diderot (1713-1784), Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788) and Jean Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1744-1829).
Many important index fossils are of organisms that start out life as floating eggs and infant stages, which allowed them to populate the world using ocean currents.
The most successful of these became abundant, yet at the same time, they became the most vulnerable to environmental change and extinction.
However, relative methods are , which is that if there are layers of deposits, those laid down first will be on the bottom and those laid down last will be on the top. However, geological strata are not always found to be in a neat chronological order.
Wind and water erode strata and some areas are uplifted or even tilted.
The rocks, however, are assigned geologic ages based on the fossil assemblages which they contain.
The fossils, in turn, are arranged on the basis of their assumed evolutionary relationships.
These processes result in All of these processes confuse the stratigraphic record.
In many cases, however, it is possible to reconstruct the original sequence of strata so that they can be used for relative dating.
Thus the main evidence for evolution is based on the assumption of evolution.
A significant development of recent years has been the fact that many evolutionary geologists are now also recognizing this problem.
Creationists have long insisted that the main evidence for evolution — the fossil record — involves a serious case of circular reasoning.